Law is a set of rules that govern social and governmental institutions. It is sometimes regarded as a science or an art. Governments can make laws by a group or single legislator, by decree or by a judge in a common law jurisdiction. Private individuals can also create legally binding contracts or arbitration agreements.
Laws may cover a broad range of subjects, but they are most often related to controversial social issues. These topics can include abortion, human and civil rights, gun control, immigration, privacy, and more. These issues are often debated in public forums, and can include issues related to the application of existing regulations and the need for new ones. For example, the legality of a new environmental law, or a military privilege for a non-US citizen, can be a subject of a debate in a court.
Legal systems can be divided into common and civil law systems. In common law systems, judges’ decisions are explicitly acknowledged as “law” and bind lower courts and the executive branch. These systems also include the doctrine of precedent, which means that decisions of a higher court bind lower courts and other decisions of the same court. Civil law systems, on the other hand, are governed by legislative statutes and judicial decisions.
In addition to addressing issues of fairness, the judiciary should also support measures that will hold it accountable. While most judges are dedicated to upholding the rule of law, there are times when ethical mistakes may occur. Those ethical lapses should be acknowledged and corrected if possible. Moreover, judges should be willing to develop and participate in the development of ethical standards.